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Ennever & Enever family history & ancestry. Click here to return to the home page WJ Ennever (1869-1947). From the portrait by J Seymour R.A., exhibited in the Royal Academy.

Occupations at a young age (child labour)

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Today's employment legislation is very different from that which existed in the Victorian era and child labour played a very important role in the Industrial Revolution.  It was commonly accepted practice from the seventeenth century on that families could only support themselves if the children as well as the parents were working.  By the start of Queen Victoria's reign it is thought that only 20% of London's children received any education, a number which had risen to maybe 50% by 1860, although this was not necessarily full-time education.  For adults and children alike working hours were long and conditions were atrocious and largely unregulated.  Labourers put in 64 hours a week in summer and 52 in winter and general servants, there were more than 100,000 domestic servants in London alone in the mid 19th century, worked 80 hours or more for maybe a halfpenny an hour.

Before 1870 no education legislation existed but after the Education Act of 1870 all children were supposed to receive compulsory education and none were supposed to work under the age of ten.  However, many children were subjected to what was known as the "half-time" system.  Under this system children of 10-14 years of age attended school for half the day and worked the other half.  In 1892 the minimum age for working was raised to 11 years and in 1900 to 12 years.  As mentioned, children's wages were often an important part of the family's income and many parents therefore opposed these changes.

There are a number of examples to be found in the Ennever and related families of children working at a very young age and you can see a complete list of these on the "Reports" page, while a selection of the more notable are shown below:

 

8
 
11
 
15
Name Occupation
Age
Headley Newberry Straw Plaiter
7
Henry Hurrell (brother of Arthur below) Labourer
8
Thomas Challis (see also his brother Abram Challis below) Agricultural Labourer
8
Isabella Lloyd Working in a Silk Factory
9
William Long Farmer's Boy
9
Reuben Gregory (incorrectly recorded as 14 yrs old) Agricultural Labourer
9
Josiah Newberry (brother of Headley, above) Straw Plaiter
9
Abram Challis (see also his brother Thomas Challis above) Agricultural Labourer
9
Eves Clough Coal Miner
10
Eli Sisson Coal Miner
10
Samuel Burnhill Worsted Factory Worker
10
John Reuben Horner (twin brother of Sidney below) Ploughboy
10
Sidney James Horner (twin brother of John above) Ploughboy
10
Emma Simpson Nurse
10
John Drew (brother of James below) Ploughboy
10
William Whitbread Agricultural Labourer
10
Susan Daines Straw Plaiter
10
Henry Cornish Agricultural Labourer
10
Edward Fulcher Farmer's Labourer
10
Edward and William Vale Agricultural Labourer
10 & 11
Samuel Coker Agricultural Labourer
11
Samuel Smith (brother of Moses below) Coal Miner
11
William John Uren Steam Boiler Maker
11
Henry Brain Agricultural Labourer
11
Thomas Ennever Agricultural Labourer
11
Maria Potter (also Elizabeth, her sister, aged 15) Stick Gloves
11
Joseph Hutchinson Coal Miner
11
Wilfred Such Agricultural Labourer
11
Eliza Pratt Lace Work
11
David Enever Agricultural Labourer
11
John Daines Agricultural Labourer
11
James Bunn (brother of Henry Bunn, below) Agricultural Labourer
11
John Hemsley Coal Miner
11
James Thurston Errand Boy
11
Joseph Hackett Ruler's Boy
11
Arthur Hurrell (brother of Henry above) Labourer
11
Charles Alfred (Harry) Fulcher Agricultural Labourer
11
John Clough Coal Miner
12
Joseph Hill (my third great grandfather) Coal Miner
12
James Grady Works on the Water (probably the River Thames)
12
William Henry Collins Chaircaner
12
Eliza Smith Cook
12
Emma Ettritch Domestic servant
12
Elizabeth Thorpe Factory Girl
12
John Thomas Bashford Servant (at a school)
12
James Drew (brother of John above) Ploughboy
12
Charles Richard Enever Office boy
12
Jonathan Enever Agricultural Labourer
12
Arthur Frederick Varney School Errand Boy (Grocers)
12
Charles Daines Agricultural Labourer
12
Daisy Rayson Nursemaid (Domestic)
12
Solomon Lowe (see also Olive Lowe, his sister, a labourer at age 16) Bricklayer
12
Joseph Henshaw (brother of John below) Coal Miner
12
John Street Coal Miner
12
William Parr Paper Hanger
12
Maria McKenzie Domestic Servant
12
George Cornish Agricultural Labourer
12
Francis Grant (brother of Frederick below) Grocer's Assistant
13
Sarah Hackett Box Maker
13
Charles Bearman Agricultural Labourer
13
William Parr Office Boy in Commercial Office
13
Ichabod Wheatley (later married Caroline Bostock below) Miner
13
Jane Mary Muckley Servant
13
Caroline Bostock Warehouse Labourer
13
Job William Bostock (nephew of Caroline above) Bricklayer's Labourer
13
Margaret Barnes Nursemaid
13
George Henry Gibson Apprentice to Shoe Trade
13
Sam Richards Coal Miner
13
Moses Smith (brother of Samuel above) Coal Miner
13
Catharine Bostock (later married Ichabod Wheatley above) Silk Winder
13
Henry Saveall (aka Savill) Labourer
13
Daniel Inman Pieces at factory (Worsted)
13
George James Enever Agricultural Labourer
13
William Enever Agricultural Labourer
13
Harry Hill (cousin of Annie & Agnes below) Shop Assistant
13
Abraham Porter Woodman
13
Charles F Pegrum Plumber's Labourer
13
Mary Elizabeth Reddall Servant
13
Daniel Barnard Agricultural Labourer
13
Louisa Challis & Mary Ann Challis (sisters) Works at Silk Mill
13
Nellie Smith (sister of Agnes below) Errand Girl
13
Henry White (also known as Henry Henshaw) Coal Miner
13
Thomas Pease Glass Hand (Glass Bottle Warehouse)
13
Clarence Bostock (brother of William below) Pony Driver (Coal Pit) Underground
13
Samuel Langwith Shoe Maker
13
Joseph Charles Deeks Labourer
13
Thomas Arthur Goymer Agricultural Labourer
13
Michael Levy & Joseph Levy Cigar maker
13
Albert Budry (brother of Herbert below) Agricultural Labourer
13
Herbert Budrey (brother of Albert above) Agricultural Labourer
14
Mary Rebecca Davis Sew, Nursemaid
14
Gertrude Grimes Day Girl (Domestic)
14
Raymond Basil Smith (my grandfather) Clerk to Fruit Salesman
14
Bertha Elsom Tea Packer
14
Frank Freeman Carrier (Glassworks)
14
Thomas Hutchinson Coal Miner
14
Mary A Wheatley (daughter of Caroline Bostock above) Lace worker
14
William Henry Hill Apprenticed to Joiner
14
John Smith Coal Miner
14
Mary Ann Beer Shop assistant
14
Mahala Henshaw (sister of Emily & Elizabeth below) Warehouse Girl
14
Emily Henshaw Lace Finisher
14
Elizabeth Henshaw Frame Work Knitter
14
Margaret Ann Enever Skirt Maker
14
Francis Charles Todd Railway Clerk
14
Emma Hopkins Barmaid at "The Plume of Feathers"
14
Frederick White Goldblocker
14
Annie Hill (cousin of Agnes below and Harry above) Bobbin Winder (Blanket & Rug Manufacturer)
14
Agnes Hill (cousin of Annie and Harry above) Rug Maker
14
Frederick Charles Enever Cabinet Maker's Apprentice
14
Ivy Howard Rag Sorter (Woollen Cloth Manufacturer)
14
Charles Enever Clerk
14
James Harris Errand Boy
14
John Law Bottle Washer at Brewery
14
Elizabeth Ann Inman Nurse
14
John Cooper Hobbs (father of Sir John Berry (Jack) Hobbs) Labourer
14
Richard Mumford General Labourer (Saw Mills)
14
Joseph Knighton Coal Miner
14
William Lindsay Miner
14
Agnes Smith (sister of Nellie above) Feeder Printing Machine (Printing Works)
14
John Henshaw (brother of Joseph above) Coal Miner
14
Richard Gunson Coal Miner
14
Charles Deeks Sea Waller
14
Maurice Carrington Farm Labourer
14
Percy Walter Roast Labourer on Farm
14
William Hallier Lighterman's Apprentice
14
James Fulcher Agricultural Labourer
14
Leonard Sims Telegraph Boy
15
Frederick Grant (brother of Francis above) General Labourer
15
Rachael Levy Cigar Maker
15
Gertrude Philippa Enever Pupil Teacher (Music)
15
Jane Enever Agricultural Labourer
15
Frederick Francis (Frank) Enever Clerk to a Druggist
15
Henry Enever General Servant Page Boy
15
Oliver Bostock Colliery Waggoner (below ground)
15
Arthur Brooks Shoemaker's Assistant
15
Elizabeth Bostock Warehouse Labourer
15
Agnes Jane Fulcher Agricultural Labourer
15
Henry Bunn (brother of James Bunn, above) Agricultural Labourer
15
George Pease Glass Hand (Glass Bottle Warehouse)
15
Thomas White (also known as Thomas Henshaw) Coal Miner
15
William Allen Bostock (brother of Clarence above) Pony Driver (Coal Pit) Underground
15
George Hunt Costermonger
15
Thomas White Street Coal miner
15
Charles Clear Graham Clerk
15
Emily Hutchings Seamstress
15

Note: age-related calculations are based on individuals with recorded birth dates. Due to the existence of incomplete date fields (eg a birth date listed only as "1945" or "before 1860"), these calculations cannot be 100% accurate.


If you have any relevant information about family occupations I would be delighted to hear from you.

Author:  Barry Ennever

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